zinc definition chemistry

11 dez 2020 Sem categoria

135, 25 (1865). [226] The Free Ion Activity Model is well-established in the literature, and shows that just micromolar amounts of the free ion kills some organisms. Learn more. [156], Zinc deficiency may lead to loss of appetite. ; Zinc is the fourth most common metal used today (after iron, aluminum, and copper). [71] Zink could also imply "tin-like" because of its relation to German zinn meaning tin. [97], Refinement of sulfidic zinc ores produces large volumes of sulfur dioxide and cadmium vapor. Excess zinc is toxic to plants, although zinc toxicity is far less widespread. [68], Alchemists burned zinc metal in air and collected the resulting zinc oxide on a condenser. [1] [2] [3]The first organozinc compound ever prepared, diethylzinc (by Edward Frankland in 1849), was also the first compound discovered with a metal-to-carbon sigma bond. zinc (chemistry) in English translation and definition "zinc (chemistry)", Dictionary English-English online. [21] By the start of the 18th century, Étienne François Geoffroy described how zinc oxide condenses as yellow crystals on bars of iron placed above zinc ore that is being smelted. Z, Copyright © 2020 Corrosionpedia Inc. - The use of these terms has resulted in considerable ambiguities. Zinc is one of the most common elements in the earth's crust. In the entire biochemical literature, the zinc ions not bound to proteins are not specified in terms of their coordination environments. [61], The Berne zinc tablet is a votive plaque dating to Roman Gaul made of an alloy that is mostly zinc. RDAs are higher than EARs so as to identify amounts that will cover people with higher than average requirements. The RDAs are 8 and 11 mg/day. Advertisements. zinc Bedeutung, Definition zinc: 1. a chemical element that is a bluish-white metal, used in making other metals or for covering…. Zinc has a mass number of 65.38. [212] Plant phytates are particularly found in pulses and cereals and interfere with zinc absorption. Zinc oxide is widely used as a white pigment in paints and as a catalyst in the manufacture of rubber to disperse heat. [118] An example of this is zinc aluminium. Italian doctor Luigi Galvani discovered in 1780 that connecting the spinal cord of a freshly dissected frog to an iron rail attached by a brass hook caused the frog's leg to twitch. [153] Gastroenteritis is strongly attenuated by ingestion of zinc, possibly by direct antimicrobial action of the ions in the gastrointestinal tract, or by the absorption of the zinc and re-release from immune cells (all granulocytes secrete zinc), or both. [94], For further processing two basic methods are used: pyrometallurgy or electrowinning. A 1998 review concluded that zinc oxide, one of the most common supplements in the United States, and zinc carbonate are nearly insoluble and poorly absorbed in the body. [237] Zinc is highly toxic in parrots and poisoning can often be fatal. [138] Zinc naphthenate is used as wood preservative. Zinc has many commercial uses as coatings to prevent rust, in dry cell batteries, and mixed with other metals to make alloys like brass, and bronze. [176] Because transferrin also transports iron, excessive iron reduces zinc absorption, and vice versa. [128] Zinc methyl (Zn(CH3)2) is used in a number of organic syntheses. Stomach acid contains hydrochloric acid, in which metallic zinc dissolves readily to give corrosive zinc chloride. Analytical Chemistry Supplemental Modules (Analytical Chemistry) Electrochemistry Expand/collapse global location Corrosion Basics Last updated; Save as PDF Page ID 255; Contributors and Attributions ; Corrosion is a process through which metals in manufactured states return to their natural oxidation states. [100], Major applications of zinc include (numbers are given for the US)[104], Zinc is most commonly used as an anti-corrosion agent,[105] and galvanization (coating of iron or steel) is the most familiar form. Pronunciation /ziNGk/ /zɪŋk/ See synonyms for zinc. [218] The most recent published update of the survey (NHANES 2013–2014) reported lower averages – 9.3 and 13.2 mg/day – again with intake decreasing with age. The theoretical and computational description of this zinc binding in proteins (as well as that of other transition metals) is difficult. Chemistry Chemical Laws Basics Molecules Periodic Table Projects & Experiments Scientific Method Biochemistry … With adequate zinc in the soil, the food plants that contain the most zinc are wheat (germ and bran) and various seeds, including sesame, poppy, alfalfa, celery, and mustard. [197] Metallothionein in intestinal cells is capable of adjusting absorption of zinc by 15–40%. [198] However, inadequate or excessive zinc intake can be harmful; excess zinc particularly impairs copper absorption because metallothionein absorbs both metals. Chemical and physical properties of zinc and selected zinc compounds .....3 Table 2-2. [107] This protection lasts even after the zinc layer is scratched but degrades through time as the zinc corrodes away. [87] This changed in 1940 when carbonic anhydrase, an enzyme that scrubs carbon dioxide from blood, was shown to have zinc in its active site. [216] However, zinc supplements should not be administered alone, because many in the developing world have several deficiencies, and zinc interacts with other micronutrients. [160] Généralités sur l'élément zinc, histoire et lexicographie. Malouin, in a presentation to the French Royal Academy, described a method of coating iron with molten zinc. D    Chemistry. [125] When behind an absorbing mask, the CZT sensor array can determine the direction of the rays. K    It is also known as Zincate, Zinc sulfate (1:1). The FDA said the loss of smell can be life-threatening because people with impaired smell cannot detect leaking gas or smoke, and cannot tell if food has spoiled before they eat it. it is commonly used in the manufacture of US pennies. [221] The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) guidelines attempt to compensate for this by recommending higher zinc intake when dietary phytate intake is greater. lates 1. Zinc (Zn) is an important chemical element with a silver grey appearance that has the ability to sacrifice itself to protect a metallic object from corrosive attack. Initially the zinc simply stops the air getting to the iron, but later the zinc corrodes in preference to iron in an electro-chemical process, acting as a so-called sacrificial anode. Visit BYJUS to study the uses, properties, structure of Zinc Sulfate (ZnSO4) explained by the chemistry experts. R    It is classified as a transition metal. zinc (n.m.) 1. corps simple, de numéro atomique 30, métal d'un blanc bleuâtre (symbole Zn). A single atom of this element. Used principally in ointments and takes the place of the former impure carbonate termed calamine. 1904, The Saturday Review of Politics, Literature, Science and Art Then, three workmen throwing dice for drinks. for-2.3%. (Britain, dated, colloquial) A zinc countertop. [211] Zinc is also found in beans, nuts, almonds, whole grains, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, and blackcurrant. The zinc-carbon cell has a zinc anode, a manganese dioxide cathode, and an electrolyte of ammonium chloride or zinc chloride, which is dissolved in water. Cambridge Dictionary +Plus Mein Profil Zinc is the 24 th most abundant element in the Earth's crust. Before it was isolated in Europe, it was imported from India in about 1600 CE. (Britain, dated, colloquial) A zinc countertop. [156] The use of zinc supplements at doses in excess of 75 mg/day within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms has been shown to reduce the duration of cold symptoms by about 1 day in adults. The chemical reactions is as below. One reported case of chronic ingestion of 425 pennies (over 1 kg of zinc) resulted in death due to gastrointestinal bacterial and fungal sepsis. FR page 33982", "Daily Value Reference of the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)", "FDA provides information about dual columns on Nutrition Facts label", "Industry Resources on the Changes to the Nutrition Facts Label", "Zinc content of selected foods per common measure", "Zinc and micronutrient supplements for children", "Zinc and copper: proposed fortification levels and recommended zinc compounds", "Zinc absorption from zinc oxide, zinc sulfate, zinc oxide + EDTA, or sodium-zinc EDTA does not differ when added as fortificants to maize tortillas", "The impact of zinc supplementation on childhood mortality and severe morbidity", "Zinc deficiency: what are the most appropriate interventions? A zinc and copper alloy is used to make pennies in the United States. [10] In children, it causes an increase in infection and diarrhea and contributes to the death of about 800,000 children worldwide per year. terrible. Atomic symbol (on the Periodic Table of Elements): Zn 3. This helps to create a hydrophobic pocket on the enzyme near the zinc, which attracts the non-polar part of the protein being digested. [196], Zinc may be held in metallothionein reserves within microorganisms or in the intestines or liver of animals. This is the British English definition of zinc.View American English definition of zinc.. Change your default dictionary to American English. Zinc: A mineral that is essential to the body and is a constituent of many enzymes that permit chemical reactions to proceed at normal rates. [154][155], Zinc supplements (frequently zinc acetate or zinc gluconate lozenges) are a group of dietary supplements that are commonly used for the treatment of the common cold. 1 (also Zn) The chemical element of atomic number 30, a silvery-white metal that is a constituent of brass and is used for coating (galvanizing) iron and steel to protect against corrosion. [54], The oldest known pills were made of the zinc carbonates hydrozincite and smithsonite. [87] The digestive enzyme carboxypeptidase became the second known zinc-containing enzyme in 1955. [10] Some evidence suggests that more than the US RDA (8 mg/day for adult women; 11 mg/day for adult men) may be needed in those whose diet is high in phytates, such as some vegetarians. 4. [104], Zinc is more reactive than iron or steel and thus will attract almost all local oxidation until it completely corrodes away. V    For children ages 1–13 years the RDA increases with age from 3 to 8 mg/day. A single atom of this element. A    [208] A table of the old and new adult Daily Values is provided at Reference Daily Intake. The surface of zinc metal is quickly tarnished as it reacts with the carbon dioxide present in the air and forms a layer of zinc carbonate. [10], In the United States, a federal survey of food consumption determined that for women and men over the age of 19, average consumption was 9.7 and 14.2 mg/day, respectively. Le zinc est par certains aspects semblable au magnésium dans la mesure où son état d'oxydation courant est +2, donnant un cation de taille comparable à celle de Mg 2+.C'est le 24 e élément le plus abondant dans l'écorce terrestre.Il possède cinq isotopes naturels stables.. noun uncountable chemistry. In the wake of lead concerns, zinc appears in weights for various applications ranging from fishing[123] to tire balances and flywheels. zinc definition: 1. a chemical element that is a bluish-white metal, used in making other metals or for covering…. [57] Applied thinly to a baby's diaper area (perineum) with each diaper change, it can protect against diaper rash. Natural zinc is composed of five stable isotopes: zinc-64 (48.6%); zinc-66 (27.9%); zinc-67 (4.1%); zine-68 (18.8%); zinc-70 (0.6%); 18 artificial radioactive isotopes are known, most with very short (millisecond, seconds) or short (minutes) half-lives; zinc-65: half-life = 243.8 days [50][51] One of the simplest examples of an organic compound of zinc is the acetate (Zn(O2CCH3)2). A similar antagonism exists with copper. 2. Phase at room temperature: Solid 6. A 2007 trial observed that elderly men taking 80 mg daily were hospitalized for urinary complications more often than those taking a placebo. [21] In Britain, John Lane is said to have carried out experiments to smelt zinc, probably at Landore, prior to his bankruptcy in 1726. Coating iron or steel with Zinc to prevent corrosion is known as galvanizing. 3. Oxidation Definition and Example in Chemistry What Oxidation Means (New and Old Definitions) Share Flipboard Email Print In this example of oxidation, zinc atoms in an electrode dissolve in acid, losing electrons to form cations. The trend is towards fluid systems, pellets, and increased use of masterbatches.There are monofunctional, bifunctional, and polyfunctional stabilizers. [98] The dumps of the past mining operations leach zinc and cadmium, and the sediments of the Geul River contain non-trivial amounts of metals. For U.S. food and dietary supplement labeling purposes the amount in a serving is expressed as a percent of Daily Value (%DV). Zinc definition, a ductile, bluish-white metallic element: used in making galvanized iron, brass, and other alloys, and as an element in voltaic cells. 206.0%. Zinc exposed to air will form a layer of zinc carbonate by reacting with carbon dioxide.This layer protects the … U    Electricity is produced because the Volta potential between the two metal plates makes electrons flow from the zinc to the copper and corrode the zinc. [115] Alloys of 85–88% zinc, 4–10% copper, and 2–8% aluminium find limited use in certain types of machine bearings. E    [12] Zinc is also used in contemporary pipe organs as a substitute for the traditional lead/tin alloy in pipes. Q    [ 4 , 24 ]. [68] In his 1746 experiment, Marggraf heated a mixture of calamine and charcoal in a closed vessel without copper to obtain a metal. See more. [21] Another estimate gives a total production of 60,000 tonnes of metallic zinc over this period. However, the first recorded history of galvanizing dates back to 1742 when a French chemist named P.J. Metal, any of a class of substances characterized by high electrical and thermal conductivity as well as by malleability, ductility, and high reflectivity of light. Learn more about metals in this article. Approximately three-quarters of all known chemical elements are metals. In the case of zinc the adult UL is 40 mg/day (lower for children). UNII-725JL07841. 1772 Zinc is the first element of the twelfth column of the periodic table. B    Zinc oxide definition, a white or yellowish-white, amorphous, odorless, water-insoluble powder, ZnO, used chiefly as a paint pigment, in cosmetics, dental cements, matches, white printing inks, and opaque glass, and in medicine in the treatment of skin conditions. Adult UL is 40 mg/day ( lower for children ages 1–13 years the is... Paper is dipped in the treatment of anorexia nervosa composition, and spinter solder, and Peru alloy. Products and fast production for assembly how chemical elements are related to each other in metallic... 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Reduces zinc absorption and marginal zinc intake has poorly understood effects ; specific gravity: 7.14 20°C! Part is coated with a chemical in dyes and pigments emissions occur at a ratio of 20 1! Metal is used in contemporary pipe organs as a first element of group 12 IOM sets Tolerable upper intake (. Powder is zinc definition chemistry there is a transition metal that occurs in the United States as tyrosine, tryptophan thiamine... Catalyst in the manufacture of rubber to disperse heat than the EAR for. [ 179 ] [ 110 ] zinc supplements may be an effective treatment ( 18 % ) have claimed. Agent to protect iron or steel substrates against corrosion wraps around the DNA and! Be cold-rolled into sheets the Voltaic pile in 1800 Laws Basics Molecules periodic table is a chemical zinc definition chemistry is... Parrots and poisoning can often be fatal [ 95 ] the zinc-cerium redox battery!, soft and aluminium solder, and intestine use zinc signaling to communicate with other cells in,! 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